Top five observational studies of 2018

Best observational studies 2018

Observational research is great for pointing out associations that merit further study — typically with randomized clinical trials — to determine if there is a causal relationship. In 2018, these observational studies caught our eye:

1. Could full-fat dairy help you live longer?

Otto de Oliveira et. al. in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:
Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

Long-term exposure to circulating… [fatty acids from dairy fat] was not significantly associated with total mortality or incident cardiovascular disease among older adults. High circulating heptadecanoic acid was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke mortality and potentially associated with higher risk of non-CVD death.

Read our take on this study in our post, “Could full-fat dairy products help you live longer?

2. Does more insulin lead to obesity or is it the other way around?

Dr. Christina Astley et. al. in Clinical Chemistry
Genetic evidence that carbohydrate-stimulated insulin secretion leads to obesity

Mendelian randomization analyses provide evidence for a causal relationship of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on body weight, consistent with the carbohydrate–insulin model of obesity.

Read our take on this study in our post, “New genetic study: Obesity may be caused by high insulin.

3. Is high carbohydrate intake the best predictor of cardiovascular disease?

Pavel Grasgruber et. al. in Nutrients:
Global correlates of cardiovascular risk: A comparison of 158 countries

The indicators of cardiovascular diseases always show the most consistent association with high carbohydrate consumption, especially in the form of high-glycaemic cereals, in particular wheat. Other suspect variables are alcohol (mainly in its distilled form) and sunflower oil, but their roles are limited to Europe where their consumption rates are sufficiently high.

4. Does high blood sugar cause dementia?

Fanfan Zheng et. al in Diabetologia:
HbA1c, diabetes and cognitive decline: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Significant longitudinal associations between HbA1c levels, diabetes status and long-term cognitive decline were observed in this study. Future studies are required to determine the effects of maintaining optimal glucose control on the rate of cognitive decline in people with diabetes.

5. Do high LDL cholesterol levels protect against dementia?

Fen Zhou et. al. in Frontiers in Neurology:
High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol inversely relates to dementia in community-dwelling older adults: The Shanghai Aging Study

Our data indicate that high level of LDL-C is inversely associated with dementia in older Chinese adults. High level of LDL-C may be considered as a potential protective factor against cognitive decline.

Read our take on this study in our post, “High LDL cholesterol may protect against dementia – don’t tell the statin pushers!

Honorable mention

Two additional dairy-fat studies and a retrospective analysis of existing data that attempts to establish a timeline for diabetes are also worth reading:

Every year, we see interesting associations in new observational studies. What findings will 2019 bring forward? Stay tuned!

Earlier

Top five opinion editorials of 2018

Top five medical journal articles of 2018

Top five low-carb studies of 2018

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