Should you count calories on a low-carb or keto diet?
- What are calories?
- How many calories do carbs, protein, and fat provide?
- Calories count, but they are not the whole story
- The bottom line
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What are calories?
A calorie is a unit of energy your body uses to perform hundreds of tasks. These include voluntary movements like walking, running, and jumping, as well as involuntary ones like breathing, circulating blood throughout your system, and maintaining normal body temperature.
Your body needs a certain number of calories just to keep those involuntary processes going. This is referred to as your basal metabolic rate, or BMR. Your BMR is influenced by many factors, including your age, gender, body composition, and genetics.1
You require additional calories for physical activity, including walking. Overall, the more active you are, the more calories you need.
How many calories do carbs, protein, and fat provide?
Each macronutrient provides a specific amount of calories:2
- Carbs: 4 calories per gram
- Protein: 4 calories per gram
- Fat: 9 calories per gram
Protein is generally considered the most filling macronutrient, but it’s mostly used for cell repair and muscle maintenance.3It’s not very efficient as an energy source because it must first be converted to glucose in the liver in order to be used as fuel.
100% of the calories in butter, ghee, lard, and most oils come from fat. However, the calories in most foods are a combination of carbs, protein, and fat.
For instance, although eggs are considered a protein food, the majority of their calories actually come from fat. For example, two large eggs provide 146 calories:
- 4 calories from carbs (1 gram) (2%)
- 52 calories from protein (13 grams) (34%)
- 90 calories from fat (10 grams) (64%)
Calories count, but they are not the whole story
Generally speaking, if you take in more calories than your body needs, the extra calories will be stored as fat. Similarly, if you take in fewer calories than needed, your body will release its fat stores, and you will lose weight.
Because of this, some contend that calories are all that matter.4 All you have to do to lose weight is reduce calories.
It sounds simple, but humans are more complicated than that.
There’s far more to weight regulation than just monitoring calories in vs. calories out.5 Indeed, most members of the human race appear to have regulated their weight effectively for millennia, before anyone even knew what a calorie was.
The modern obesity epidemic seems to be an unprecedented phenomenon, and it coincides with an ever-increased focus on counting calories.6 Correlation is not causation, so it would be wrong to say that counting calories causes obesity. However, at best, counting calories seems to be an imperfect aid to weight control.
So what’s really going on? As it turns out, psychology of eating is a key factor, as is hormonal regulation.
Hormones play a large role in influencing appetite, fullness, and fat storage. Research suggests that low-carb and keto meals may trigger hormones that lead to a natural reduction in calorie intake, especially in those who are overweight or have insulin resistance.7
In one study, overweight people consumed a breakfast of eggs or a bagel. Although each meal contained an identical amount of calories, the group that consumed the egg breakfast stayed full longer and ate fewer calories at lunch than the group that ate the bagel breakfast.8
Additionally, your insulin levels – and how sensitive your body is to insulin – may influence whether you store or burn calories. In people who have lost weight, elevated post-meal insulin levels and a slower metabolism may drive weight regain.9 However, researchers have found that decreasing carb intake may potentially help counteract these effects.10 What’s more, low-carb diets regularly outperform low-calorie diets for weight loss, even in studies where calories aren’t intentionally counted or restricted during low-carb eating.11
For example, in a 2004 study, overweight and obese adults consumed a low-fat diet and a low-carb diet for one week each. Both diets were designed to reduce each person’s calorie intake by 500 calories per day. Yet the participants lost more weight and body fat during the low-carb week than the low-fat week – even though men in the study averaged slightly higher calorie intake while following low carb.12
While calories are clearly important in weight regulation, they need to be considered within the context of hormones and human behavior.
Video: Doctors answer
Dr. Naiman: Yes, weight loss is all about… No, weight loss is definitely not about calories. And I have a zillion patients who’ve gone on low-calorie diets. And you can lose weight that way and you will immediately regain it. And we have plenty of studies that document this. So weight loss is not all about calories.
Dr. Eenfeldt: Isn’t weight loss all about calories?
Dr. Brukner: Well, so they’ve tried to convince us for the last 30 years. But calories in, calories out has been the philosophy of the 30 years. But, you know, you’re going to tell me that 100 cal from a piece of salmon is exactly the same as 100 cal from candy, or chocolate, or ice cream…
I mean that doesn’t make any sense at all, does it? So I mean calories in, calories out has been disproved. I mean there are calories from differences that have markedly different effects. And until we get rid of this whole calories in…
It’s been a disaster, this calories in, calories out. I mean look at the effect. Since we have adopted that philosophy we have worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes, fatty liver and so on… It’s been a disaster and the sooner we forget about it… It’s sort of an attractive concept, you know, what you bring in, what you take out… But unfortunately it doesn’t work.
Dr. Eenfeldt: Isn’t weight loss all about calories?
Dr. Westman: Well, I think calories matter. The energy balance equation where we talk about energy in… calories in, calories out isn’t a good construct to help guide people… It’s more complicated than counting the calories on a label, for example.
Because the calories are handled differently depending on what type of calorie it is, based on the metabolism for that individual calorie. But I think that it’s pretty clear that when people are losing weight, they are eating fewer calories than they were before.
And then of course if the weight loss program that they are doing changes the metabolic rate, that’s another factor you have to take into account. But I think it’s fair to say that a low-carbohydrate diet isn’t magical. It follows the rules of science that we understand, having to do with energy balance and the calories.
So when I teach the low-carb diet, I don’t talk about calories. We don’t have to teach calories, but people are still eating fewer calories in general. That’s, you know, not the case for everyone. That’s the role for the practitioner to help people troubleshoot those situations.
Counting calories: yes or no?
At Diet Doctor, we don’t recommend counting calories. First of all, it’s impossible to know exactly how many calories you’re getting from a specific food, let alone precisely what your body will do with those calories. We feel it’s far more important to choose foods that promote the release of hunger-suppressing hormones that help keep you satisfied and make it easier to achieve a healthy weight.
Focus on minimally-processed foods that contain high-quality protein, natural fats, and nutrient-dense fibrous carbs, especially above-ground vegetables.
And if you’re really struggling to lose weight, stay away from high-calorie, high-reward foods that are easy to overindulge in, even if they are low in carbohydrates. Classic examples of such foods are cheese and nuts.
Rather than counting calories, make all of your calories count by eating nourishing, well-balanced low-carb meals.
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Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006: Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. [review of uncontrolled studies, weak evidence] ↩
The Lancet 2011: National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants [review of observational studies, weak evidence] ↩
In one study, high-protein and high-fat meals increased levels of the “satiety hormones” GLP-1 and PYY and lowered levels of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin more than high-carb meals in obese men:
The following case-control study showed those who sustained weight loss had sustained lower insulin levels, but those who relapsed had much higher insulin levels.
Nutrition and Diabetes 2017: Enhanced insulin sensitivity in successful, long-term weight loss maintainers compared with matched controls with no weight loss history [observational study; very weak evidence] ↩
This has been shown in several high-quality trials:
You can find a large number of such studies here:
Nutrition & Metabolism 2004: Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women [randomized crossover trial; moderate evidence] ↩