How much protein should you eat?
We recommend that you choose unprocessed meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and/or dairy as protein sources. Consuming animal products helps ensure that you receive all of the essential amino acids your body needs.2
Lacto-ovo vegetarian low-carbohydrate diets are a definitive option, and even vegan low-carbohydrate diets are possible. However, consistently meeting protein and other nutrient needs can be quite challenging for vegans, particularly those who eat very-low-carb or ketogenic diets.3
Unlike fat and carbohydrates, protein isn’t used as a primary energy source under normal circumstances. Instead, it is used to build and maintain muscle and to replenish the amino acid supply used to make enzymes, hormones, and other tissues in addition to muscle.
Furthermore, there is a limited amount of protein that can be absorbed at a meal.4 If you eat more protein than your body can absorb, the resulting excess amino acids may instead be used for gluconeogenesis (literally “making new glucose”).5 Protein may also raise insulin levels when consumed in large amounts.6 However, this hasn’t been tested in many people other than in small studies. Protein’s effect on insulin may vary significantly from person to person.
Additionally, gram for gram, protein is considerably more expensive than natural fats like butter, olive oil and coconut oil.7
For these reasons, we recommend eating a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that is moderate in protein. This goes for all levels of carb restriction.
We define “moderate” protein as roughly 1.2 to 1.7 grams per kilogram (g/kg) of ideal body weight per day for adults. As an example, if your ideal body weight is 65 kg (143 lbs), you need about 78 to 111 grams of protein per day. This can be achieved by eating three eggs at breakfast, 4 to 5 ounces (120 to 150 grams) of fish at lunch, and 5 ounces (140 grams) of beef at dinner. Please see additional ideas for meeting your protein needs in our complete protein guide. Protein intake within this range has been shown to preserve muscle mass, improve body composition, and provide other health benefits in people who eat low-carb diets or higher-carb diets.8
Although this is at least 50% higher than the minimum Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein of 0.8 g/kg of body weight, it is less than “high-protein” diets containing more than 2 g/kg of protein per day, an amount that is only beneficial when needs are truly increased, such as healing from major injury or surgery.9
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Muscle, hormones, enzymes and other structures in your body are made up of 20 amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Every day, old proteins are broken down. Although most are recycled, a portion needs to replenished with new amino acids, 9 of which are essential, meaning your body can’t make them. These 9 amino acids must come from protein in your diet.
Although plant protein sources (nuts, seeds) also provide essential amino acids, animal proteins are considered higher quality because they provide all of the essential amino acids in the amounts your body needs. This includes leucine, the main amino acid used to build and maintain muscle.
Although a carefully planned vegan diet can supply all essential amino acids, because of the decreased bioavailability of these in plant foods, protein needs are approximately 30% higher for those following a vegan diet.
The precise amount that can be absorbed and used depends on age, muscle mass, meal composition and other factors. However, in one study of both young and older adults, a very high-protein (90 grams) meal didn’t lead to greater muscle protein synthesis than a moderate-protein (30 grams) meal.
Gluconeogenesis is a demand-driven process in which your liver converts amino acids and other compounds into glucose in order to prevent blood glucose from dropping too low. Although gluconeogenesis is a normal process that occurs on a regular basis, it may increase when protein intake is very high.
However, this hasn’t been tested in many people other than in small studies. Protein’s effect on insulin may vary significantly from person to person.
Nutrients 2018: Effects of a high-protein diet including whole eggs on muscle composition and indices of cardiometabolic health and systemic inflammation in older adults with overweight or obesity: a randomized controlled trial [moderate evidence]
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2017: The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men: a 10-wk randomized controlled trial [moderate evidence]
The Journal of Nutrition 2013: Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass [moderate evidence] ↩
The RDA is an estimate of the minimum amount of protein needed to meet the needs of 97% of healthy adults. ↩